Print article

Party's Resolution on strategy for sustainable development of marine economy

VGP - On October 22, 2018, on behalf of the Communist Party of Viet Nam Central Committee, General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong signed the Resolution on the strategy for the sustainable development of Viet Nam's marine economy by 2030, with a vision to 2045 (Resolution No. 36-NQ/TW).

January 30, 2019 7:24 AM GMT+7

The Resolution was adopted at the 8th plenum of the 12th Party Central Committee. The following are key parts of the Resolution for reference:



1. Background and situation

It is forecasted that in the coming time, the international situation will continue to witness many complicated developments, especially the strategic competition between big countries and maritime boundary sovereignty disputes and disagreements among countries in the East Sea. Trans-boundary environmental pollution, climate change and sea level rise have become urgent global problems.

Sustainable development and harmony between development and marine conservation have become the mainstream. Globalization and revolution of science and technology have created many opportunities and challenges. Still, in the country, macroeconomic stabilization, sustainable development; adaptation to climate change and sea level rise; security, social order and safety are big difficulties and challenges.

2. Viewpoints

(1) Unifying ideology and awareness of the position, the role and special importance of the sea for the national development and defense throughout the Party, the entire people and the entire army. The sea is a component that constitutes the sacred national sovereignty of the Fatherland, is a living space, a gateway to international exchanges, closely associated with the national construction and defense. Viet Nam must become a strong and rich country based on the sea; develop marine economy sustainably in association with ensuring national defense and security, maintaining independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, strengthening foreign relations and international cooperation on the sea, contributing to maintaining a peaceful and stable environment that is conducive to development. Sustainable development of Viet Nam's marine economy is the responsibility of the political system, the rights and obligations of all Vietnamese organizations, businesses and people.

(2) Developing the marine economy sustainably on the basis of green growth and conservation of biodiversity and marine ecosystems; ensuring harmony between economic and natural ecosystems, between conservation and development, and between the interests of coastal and landlocked localities; strengthening the linkage and restructuring sectors and fields for higher productivity, quality, efficiency and competitiveness; and promoting the potentials and advantages of the sea, creating a momentum for national economic development.

(3) Maintaining the values, promoting the historical traditions and maritime cultural identity in parallel with building a sea-friendly society; ensuring people's rights to participate, benefit and hold responsibility for sustainable development of marine economy on the basis of fairness, equality and compliance with the Constitution and legislation.

(4) Strengthening integrated and unified management of natural resources and protection of the marine environment, conservation of biodiversity and natural marine ecosystems; actively responding to climate change and sea level rise. Promoting investment in the conservation and development of biodiversity values ​​and restoration of marine ecosystems; protecting the integrity of the ecosystems from the shore to the sea. Linking marine environmental protection with prevention and deterrence of environmental pollution and incidents and promoting regional and global cooperation.

(5) Advanced and modern science and technology and high-quality human resources shall be considered as a breakthrough factor. Prioritizing state capital for investment in marine research and baseline survey and human resources training; in addition to mobilization of domestic and foreign resources. Actively improving the effectiveness of international integration and cooperation, giving priority to attracting the world's leading strategic investors with source technology, advanced management skills on the principle of equality, mutual benefit, respecting Viet Nam's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity.

3. Objectives by 2030

a) General objectives

Turning Viet Nam into a strong marine country; in principle, achieving the criteria for sustainable development of marine economy; forming a marine ecological culture; proactively adapting to climate change and sea level rise; preventing the trend of marine environmental pollution, degradation, coastal landslide and erosion and saltwater intrusion; restoring and conserving important marine ecosystems. New, advanced and modern scientific achievements will become a direct factor promoting the sustainable development of marine economy.

b) Specific objectives

- General indicators: Marine and ocean governance, coastal zone management indicators will be in line with international standards, reaching the level of upper-middle class countries in the world. Most of sea-and island-related socio-economic development activities will adhere to the principle of integrated management suitable to the marine ecosystem.

- Marine economy: Sea-based industries are expected to contribute about 10% of the national GDP; the economy of the 28 coastal provinces and cities will make up 65-70% of the country's GDP. Sea-based industries will develop sustainably in compliance with international standards; exploitation of marine resources will be controlled within the resilience of marine ecosystems.

- Social development: The Human Development Index (HDI) of the coastal provinces and cities will be higher than the national average level; per capita income of these localities will be at least 1.2 times higher than the average income of the country. The inhabited islands will be fully equipped with basic socio-economic infrastructure, especially electricity, fresh water, communication, health, education services, etc.

- Marine science, technology and human resource development: Viet Nam will approach and make the fullest use of advanced scientific and technological achievements and emerge as one of leading countries in ASEAN. In a number of areas of marine science and technology, it will strive to reach the world’s advanced level. Viet Nam will promote training and development of marine human resources, forming a contingent of highly quality and skillful marine science and technology personnel.

- Environment, response to climate change, sea level rise: Being able to evaluate the potential and value of important marine resources. In principle, at least 50% of Viet Nam's sea area will be surveyed in terms of marine resources and environment and presented on maps at the scale of 1:500,000 and surveyed in a large scale in some key areas. A digitized database on the sea and islands will be established, integrated, shared and updated.

Preventing, controlling and significantly reducing marine environmental pollution; being a regional pioneer in reducing ocean plastic waste. In the coastal provinces and cities, all hazardous wastes and domestic solid wastes will be collected and treated to meet environmental standards; all coastal economic zones, industrial parks and urban areas will be planned and constructed in a sustainable, ecological and smart manner, capable of adapting to climate change, sea level rise, with centralized wastewater treatment systems, meeting environmental requirements and standards.

Marine, coastal and island ecosystems will be properly managed and protected. The area of ​​marine and coastal conservation zones will increase to at least 6% of the natural area of the country’s maritime zones; the coastal mangrove forest area will be restored to at least equal to the area in 2000.

The capacity of forecasting and warning natural disasters, earthquakes and tsunamis, surveillance and monitoring of marine environment, climate change and sea level rise, including through the application of space technology and artificial intelligence will reach the level on par with advanced countries in the region. Measures will be taken to prevent and limit the impacts of high tides, saline intrusion and coastal erosion.

4. Vision to 2045

Viet Nam will become a powerful maritime country with sustainable, prosperous, secured and safe development; the marine economy will make important contributions to the national economy, contributing to turning the country into a modern industrial nation with socialist orientation; proactively and responsibly participating in addressing international and regional issues on the sea and the ocean.


1. A number of major guidelines

(1) Developing marine and coastal economy

a) Developing marine economic sectors

By 2030, to successfully develop with breakthroughs in marine economic sectors, placed in the order of priority: (1) Tourism and marine services; (2) Maritime economy; (3) Exploitation of oil and gas and other marine mineral resources; (4) Aquaculture and fishing; (5) Coastal industry; (6) Renewable energy and new marine economic sectors. Specifically:

- Regarding tourism and marine services: Pay attention to investment in tourism infrastructure; encourage and create conditions for all economic sectors to participate in developing eco-tourism, scientific exploration, community-based tourism, high-quality sea resorts in coastal areas; build, develop and diversify world-class marine tourism products, product chains, and brands on the basis of biodiversity conservation, promote the value of natural, cultural and historical heritage specialties of regions and areas connecting with international tourist routes to make Viet Nam an attractive destination of the world. Mull over pilot development of tourism to islands and offshore areas. Strengthen capacity of search and rescue; promote scientific exploration activities; focus on marine education, health care ... Support and create conditions for coastal inhabitants to change their trades which are likely to harm and negatively affect the sea to trades that help protect and preserve the sea, to create sustainable livelihoods, stable new jobs, and increase income for people.

- Regarding maritime economy: The focus will be placed on effective exploitation of seaports and sea transport services. To plan, build and synchronously and effectively operate integrated seaports, international transit ports and special-use ports in association with support services; building complete logistics infrastructure and transportation routes linking seaports with localities and regions across the country and to other countries. Promote the development of a rationally structured shipping fleet, applying modern technology to improve service quality to meet the demand of domestic transportation market, deeply participate in transport supply chains, and step by step increase the international market share.

- Regarding the exploitation of oil and gas and other marine resources and minerals: To raise the capacity of the oil and gas industry and other marine resources and minerals; step by step master the search, exploration and exploitation to fulfill the tasks of marine economic development in the new period. Promote the search, exploration and increase of petroleum reserves; study and explore new sedimentary basins, non-traditional hydrocarbon forms; linking oil search and exploration with investigation, survey and assessment of potentials of other marine resources and minerals, deep-sea minerals, especially those with large reserves, high values, and strategic significance. Improve the efficiency of exploitation of marine mineral resources associated with deep processing; harmoniously combine exploitation and processing with environmental protection and conservation of marine biodiversity.

- Regarding aquaculture and fishing: Shift from traditional farming and fishing to industrial methods applying high technology. Reorganize fishing activities in the direction of reducing onshore fishing, intensifying offshore and ocean fishing in line with conditions of each sea area and the recover ability of marine ecosystems in parallel with synchronously and effectively organize training and livelihood alteration for fishermen. Promote sustainable aquaculture and fishing activities, strengthen the protection and regeneration of marine resources, strictly prohibit eradication activities. Modernize the management of fisheries; promote production links in the forms of cooperative groups, cooperatives, cooperative unions; build a number of strong enterprises to participate in offshore fishing and ocean fishing cooperation. Invest in upgrading fishing ports, fishing wharves and anchorage areas and properly organize fishery logistics services. Step up the application of advanced science and technology in aquaculture, fishing, preservation and processing of aquatic products, creating key products of high quality and high economic value, meeting market demands.

- Regarding coastal industry: The development of coastal industry must be based on planning, considering the advantages of natural conditions of each region, prioritizing the development of environmentally-friendly high technologies, principle and source technologies. Reasonably develop shipbuilding and repair, petrochemical refining, energy, mechanical engineering, processing and supporting industries.

- Regarding renewable energy and new marine economic sectors: Promote investment in construction and exploitation of wind power, solar power and other forms of renewable energy. Develop equipment manufacturing industry in service of the renewable energy industry, proceed to master a number of technologies, equipment designing and manufacturing; prioritize investment in developing renewable energy on islands in service of production and daily life, ensuring national defense and security. Pay attention to developing a number of economic branches based on the exploitation of marine biodiversity resources such as marine medicinal herbs, farming and processing of seaweed, algae and seagrass...

b) Synchronously develop and gradually form coastal economic zones, industrial parks and ecological urban centers

Concentrate on building and replicating models of coastal economic zones and eco-industrial parks in association with the formation and development of strong marine economic centers. Coastal economic zones will play a key role in regional development and inter-regional connection. Innovate thinking in developing and implementing planning schemes and plans to develop coastal urban systems with synchronous and modern technical infrastructure and social infrastructure according to green growth models and criteria. Speed up the construction and improvement of the infrastructure of economic zones and coastal industrial zones in the direction of developing models of economic zones and ecological industrial parks attractive to investors and capable of attracting and using resources efficiently, especially high-quality human resources; properly solve environmental and social issues and improve the quality of people's lives.

(2) Develop marine areas based on the advantages of natural conditions, ensuring harmony between conservation and development

Planning of marine space into protection-reserve areas, buffer areas and areas for socio-economic development to ensure the sustainable development of marine economy on the basis of maximizing comparative advantages of natural conditions, geographic location, cultural identity, diversity of ecosystems, ensuring regional coherence between maritime and inland localities.

- In the Northern sea and coastal area (from Quang Ninh to Ninh Binh province): Continue to further develop Hai Phong and Quang Ninh to become a center of marine economy; being the gateway and momentum for the development of the Northern key economic region in association with Lach Huyen international port; develop Quang Ninh to become a national tourism center connected with major tourism centers of the region and the world.

- In the North Central and South Central coastal region (from Thanh Hoa to Binh Thuan province): Develop deep-sea international transshipment seaports and special-use seaports in association with industrial and petroleum, electricity, renewable energy, and clean industry complexes; develop major tourist centers; aquaculture, fishing and seafood processing, logistics services and fisheries infrastructure.

- In Southeast region (from Ba Ria-Vung Tau province to Ho Chi Minh City): Develop international container seaports, seaport logistics services, maritime safety assurance services, oil and gas exploitation and processing, supporting industries and petroleum services.

- In Southwest region (from Tien Giang to Ca Mau and Kien Giang province): Focus on building and developing Phu Quoc into an international marine tourism service and ecotourism center; develop gas industry, gas processing, gas-fired electricity generation, renewable energy, aquaculture, fishing, logistics services, and fishery infrastructure connected with major economic centers in the region and the world.

(3) Environmental protection and conservation and sustainable development of marine biodiversity; proactively respond to climate change, sea level rise and disaster prevention

Expand the area, establish new marine conservation areas on the basis of national maritime space planning; attach importance to biodiversity conservation and ecosystems restoration, especially conservation and restoration of coral reefs, sea grass beds, mangrove forests and coastal protection forests; ensure the integrity and natural relationship between land and sea ecosystems.

Develop strict criteria and technical requirements according to international standards for investment projects of high environmental pollution risk in coastal areas, ensure to prevent and inhibit the occurrence of incidents causing environmental pollution, minimize and effectively handle pollution sources. Invest in building and consolidating forces and equipment for automatic supervision and warning of environmental quality, coping with environmental incidents and toxic chemicals on the sea; manage marine waste, especially plastic waste; improve and upgrade the quality of the marine environment.

Improve the capacity of forecasting, warning, proactive prevention, avoidance and mitigation of natural disasters, earthquakes and tsunamis, adaptation to climate change, sea level rise based on advanced science and technology application, especially the application of smart models that are adaptable and resilient to natural disasters and negative impacts of climate change. Promote measures to prevent and fight against sea encroachment, coastal erosion, flooding, and saline intrusion, etc.

(4) Improve coastal inhabitants’ living standards, build maritime culture and a society closely attached and friendly to the sea

Improve coastal inhabitants’ living standards, ensure security and safety for coastal and island inhabitants and sea workers. Focus on developing cultural institutions for sea and coastal communities; promote the identity, historical values ​​and national culture, good knowledge in dealing with the sea, consider it an important foundation for building marine culture. Preserve cultural and architectural space and natural heritages. Raise awareness about the sea and the ocean, building a society with cultural awareness, lifestyles and behaviors that are attached and friendly to the sea. Promote the spirit of mutual support of the sea and coastal communities. Ensure fair and equal rights to access, participate in, benefit from and responsibility of the people to the sea.

(5) Ensure national defense, security, foreign relations and international cooperation

Build a regular and elite revolutionary armed force in the direction of modernization, prioritizing the modernization of a number of military services, armies and law enforcement forces at sea; constantly consolidate and strengthen the all people's defense posture in association with the people’s maritime security posture; ensure the capacity to properly handle sea situations, maintain independence, sovereignty, sovereign rights, jurisdiction and national interests at sea. Enhance capacity to respond to traditional and non-traditional security threats, ensure national security, social order and safety, fight against and paralyze all destructive conspiracies taking advantage of maritime and island issues. Consistently build and maintain a peaceful and stable environment and legal order at sea, create a foundation for safe and efficient exploitation and use of the sea. Strengthen and expand foreign relations and international cooperation, actively participate and positively contribute to the common efforts of the international community in the conservation and sustainable use of the sea and the ocean; utilize the resources and international support to improve the capacity of marine management and exploitation, with a focus on the fields of science, technology, knowledge and human resource training.

2. A number of breakthrough areas

(1) Improve the institution for sustainable development of marine economy, giving priority to improving the legal framework, innovation and development of green growth models, environmental protection, improvement of productivity, quality and international competitiveness of marine economic sectors, sea and coastal areas; complete the integrated and unified marine management mechanism. Review, adjust, supplement and formulate new plans related to the sea, ensuring the coherence and synchronization among sectors and localities.

(2) Develop science and technology, train for high-quality marine human resources, promote innovation, creativity, utilization of scientific and technological achievements, new technologies, and lure leading experts, scientists and high-quality human resources.

(3) Develop multi-purpose infrastructure synchronously; develop transport network connecting major economic centers of the country, industrial zones, urban areas and sea areas with seaports based on economic and natural ecosystems;  develop strategic linkages from North to South and from East to West, between domestic and international regions.


1. Strengthen the Party's leadership, promote communication, awareness raising about sustainable development of sea

Raise awareness and strengthen the leadership of the Party and authorities in organizing the deployment, inspection and supervision of the implementation of guidelines and solutions on sustainable development of marine economy. Improve efficiency, diversify forms and communication contents of the Party's guidelines, policies and laws of the State on the sea and islands, strategies for sustainable development of Viet Nam's marine economy in the entire political system, among Vietnamese at home and abroad and the international community; affirming the consistent policy of Viet Nam to maintain a peaceful and stable environment and respect international law on the sea. Bring into play the role of the Viet Nam Fatherland Front and mass organizations at all levels in the communication and mobilization of social strata to supervise and comment on the implementation of the Resolution.

2. Improve institutions, policies, strategies, planning schemes and plans on sustainable development of the marine economy

Review and improve the system of policies and laws on the sea towards promoting sustainable development, ensuring feasibility, consistency, and alignment with international standards and laws that Viet Nam has acceded to. Create favorable legal corridors to mobilize domestic and foreign resources for investment in infrastructure construction, scientific and technological and human resources development, and knowledge transfer related to the sea. Actively participate in and promote the formation of global and regional mechanisms related to the sea and the ocean.

Consolidate an integrated and unified system of sea management agencies from the central to local levels, ensuring modernity and synchronization; build a contingent of highly qualified and professional staff. Improve coordination effectiveness between agencies and between the Central and local levels on sea and island work. Consolidate inter-branch coordinating agency in directing the implementation of the strategy on sustainable development of the marine economy, headed by the Prime Minister; strengthen the capacity of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment to properly perform their functions and tasks as a standing body to assist the Government and the Prime Minister in sea and island management and consolidation.

Strengthen organizational model, improve management capacity of islands, archipelagoes and coastal areas. Arrange island inhabitants in combination with transforming the production organization model friendly to the sea and the marine environment.

Review, supplement and build new strategies, master plans, plans related to the sea and islands in the direction of integrated management, suitable to the marine ecosystem, ensuring the harmonious and synchronous adherence between conservation and development of mainland and coastal areas, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. Expeditiously develop the national maritime space planning, the overall planning on the exploitation and sustainable use of coastal resources.

3. Promote science and technology development and strengthen marine basic surveys

Promote innovation, creativity and application of advanced scientific and technological achievements; promote research and establish scientific foundation for planning and completing policies and laws on sustainable development of marine economy.

Prioritize investment in basic surveys, scientific and technological research and training of marine human resources; form centers for marine biotechnology research, application and deep-sea exploitation, space technology in sea surveillance to reach the advanced level in the region. Evaluate the potentials and advantages of natural conditions, natural resources, ecosystems and sectors, marine economic sectors such as maritime, exploitation, aquaculture, aquatic and marine product processing, renewable energy, digital information and technology, marine biopharmaceuticals, self-operating equipment ... Develop and effectively implement the key program for basic surveys of marine and island resources and environment; expand and enhance the effectiveness of international cooperation in investigation and research in international waters. Invest in advanced marine research fleets and submarine equipment capable of conducting research in deep sea areas.

4. Promote education, training and development of marine human resources

Strengthen education, awareness raising and knowledge development of the sea and the ocean, survival skills, adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, prevention and disaster prevention for pupils and students in all levels of education. Develop high-quality marine human resources meeting market demand; design special mechanisms and policies to attract talents, step by step form a contingent of managers, scientists, experts of international standards, having in-depth expertise in the sea and the ocean.

Develop a mechanism to support and improve the quality of training and develop a network of training institutions for human resources training to reach the advanced level in the region. Effectively conduct vocational training to meet the labor requirements of marine economic sectors and job transition of coastal inhabitants.

5. Strengthen capacity on national defense and security assurance and marine law enforcement

Improve the organization of forces to ensure national defense and security and marine law enforcement. Invest in modern equipment, attach special importance to human resource training, improve law enforcement effectiveness and enhance synergies and operations of forces participating in protecting sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdiction, and legitimate interests of the country. Build a strong police force in coastal and island areas, urban centers, economic zones and coastal industrial zones, acting as a core force to ensure marine and island political security, social order and safety. Improve the operational capacity of forces directly performing the tasks of prevention and mitigation of natural disasters, recuse and responding to climate change and sea level rise in the sea and islands; ensure security and safety for inhabitants, workers and economic activities in the sea area; firmly build the national defense posture in association with the people's security in the sea and islands.

6. Actively strengthen and expand foreign relations and international cooperation

Consistently pursue foreign policy of independence, self-reliance, diversification and multi-lateralization; take initiative and improve the efficiency of international integration; resolutely and persistently fight to protect the sovereignty and legitimate interests of the country on the sea, and at the same time, proactively settle disputes and disagreements on the East Sea through peaceful means on the basis of international law, especially the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982; maintain a peaceful, stable and cooperative environment for development. Strengthen relations with strategic partners, comprehensive partners, traditional friends, countries which have potentials related to the sea, countries sharing common interests on the principle of respecting independence, sovereignty, equality, mutual benefit and compliance with international law. Actively participate in international and regional forums, especially maritime cooperation activities within the ASEAN; coordinate with other countries to fully and effectively implement the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the East Sea (DOC), promoting the signing of the Code of Conduct in the East Sea (COC).

Promote international cooperation activities on sustainable management, use and conservation of seas and oceans; strictly implement regional and international treaties and agreements on the sea and the ocean that Viet Nam has participated in; study and participate in important international treaties on the sea, with priority given to areas of natural resource management, environmental protection, marine scientific research; promote participation in scientific research, survey, exploration and exploitation of natural resources in international waters. Continue to promote cooperation, take full advantage of the support of partners and international and regional organizations to develop human resources and marine infrastructure, apply modern science and technology to marine economic sectors, environmental protection, disaster prevention and adaptation to climate change and sea level rise.

7. Mobilize resources, encourage economic sectors to invest in sustainable marine development, build strong marine economic groups

Promote the attraction of resources from all economic sectors, especially the private sector and foreign invested economic sectors. Proactively attract large investors with source technology and advanced management skills from developed countries. Prioritize State budget investment for the development of island districts, island communes and offshore areas; socialize investment in infrastructure of sea, islands, economic zones and coastal industrial parks. Encourage the development of enterprises of all economic sectors and strong economic groups to operate marine production and business activities, especially in offshore and oceanic areas. Continue to restructure state-owned enterprises in marine economic sectors, ensuring management capacity, production and business efficiency, and competitiveness./.